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By Reviewed By Thomas Dahlberg Nov 11, 2020 Updated Dec 30, 2020

What can I find in this article?

What Gemstone represents my Country?

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Gemstones representing countries
Gemstones representing countries

Certain gemstones are linked forever with certain countries – rubies with Myanmar, jade with China, Alexandrite with Russia and so on, however in many of these cases the gemstone sources have been depleted or dwindled considerably.

Other countries may have a tradition of jewelry making or gemstone cutting but no natural resources of any real note of their own while others have gemstone varieties too numerous to count but little or no refinement facilities.

Countries such as Brazil, Madagascar and Sri Lanka are blessed with a huge range of precious gemstones and picking just one is difficult. Sri Lanka had the nick-name ‘Gem Island’ and as far back as Marco Polo it was praised for its sapphires, topazes and amethysts and it continues to produces stunning gemstones to this day.

We have come up with a list of gemstones that typify individual countries. Not always the most expensive, the most common or the best known but symbolically or historically linked to each country.

We have tried to make sure the gemstones, although rare, are readably available and not beyond the reach of most people’s pockets.

Apologies if we have missed your country – there are nearly 200 out there and not all have a connection to a particular gemstone although we would love to be corrected if you can supply information about your country’s links to gemstones.

What gemstone represents Afghanistan?

Lapis Lazuli - this classic blue gemstone has been mined in Afghanistan for more than 6000 years – primarily in the mineral-rich Pamir Mountain range.

Nearly a thousand years ago Marco Polo spoke of the source of Lapis Lazuli:

'There is a mountain in that region where the finest azure - lapis lazuli - in the world is found. It appears in veins like silver streaks.'

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What gemstone represents Argentina?

Rhodochrosite is the national gemstone of Argentina. This pink gemstone can be found for sale all over the country and at GemSelect. Rhodochrosite has been used since the time of the Incan Empire – in fact it has been called Inca Rose. It often appears in nature in a rather unusual way – as stalactites clinging to the roofs of caves.

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What gemstone represents Australia?

Even though this gemstone is found in many locations around the world, Opals are always thought of as an Australian native - when you see opals you think of Australia and when you see Australia you think of opals.

Black Opals have been named the official national gemstone of Australia but there are so many gorgeous examples of all varieties of opals in this huge country that restricting it to one type seems silly.

Most of the world's opals come from Australia which began its history of mining with the first discovery back in 1849 when Johannes Menge discovered some common opal in South Australia.

It was not until significant strikes of precious opals were made in the late 1800s and early 1900s that things really took off for the Australian mining industry especially when the Europeans recognized their quality and started to buy them.

The finest opals in the world are found in a number of famous mining sites throughout Australia. Mintabie, Cooper Pedy and Andamooka in South Australia, White Cliffs and Lightening Ridge in New South Wales and Winton and Quilpie in Queensland. Mining is never an easy profession but digging for precious gems in the dry deserts and craggy mountains of outback Australia is particularly tough.

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What gemstone represents Bolivia?

The national gemstone of Bolivia is Ametrine, the yellow and purple combination of amethyst and citrine in a single stone. There is even an alternative name for the bi-colored gem - Bolivianite!

In the 1600s a Spanish conquistador married princess Anahi from the native Bolivian Ayoreos tribe. As a gift he received an ametrine gemstone. He returned to Spain and when people saw the two colored gemstone they all wanted one.

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What gemstone represents Brazil?

Brazil is possibly the most gem-packed country in the world with an unlimited variety of stunning choices, many of which would make perfect gemstones to represent this diverse tropical country, but Imperial Topaz could be the most beautiful of them all.

In the early days of colonization, gold and diamonds were the most sought after commodities but emeralds, aquamarine, and amethyst were soon being unearthed.

Imperial Topaz has a special pinkish golden almost sherry-like color and is said to have got its name from the Czars of Russia where it was first found. However at around the same time, the late 1700s, Imperial Topaz were discovered in Ouro Preto in Brazil. The Russian gems are all but depleted but Brazil continues to produce gorgeous stones to this day.

The only rival for the beauty and value of Imperial Topaz would be Paraiba Tourmalines - a neon blue colored gemstone which can cost a fortune but is unfortunately just too hard to find to make our list.

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What gemstone represents Cambodia?

Less than fifty miles from our offices in Thailand is the border of Cambodia. The mines there are part of the rich veins that created the gemstone industry here in Chanthaburi a century ago. The rubies and sapphires have all but gone now but in northern Cambodia, Zircon is king - especially the bright blues.

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What gemstone represents Canada?

Ammolite is an amazing, colorful gemstone that is formed from the fossilized shells of ancient sea creatures. The Native American Blackfoot tribe believes this gemstone brings good luck and have many legends told about Ammolite.

One old tale tells of a time when the tribe had no luck in hunting buffalo and the cold winter was on its way. If they did not find food they would die of hunger. One of the tribeswoman had a dream about a special gemstone that would attract the buffalo.

The following day she was collecting firewood when she heard a song coming from a cave. She entered the cave and found a rainbow colored stone which she took back to her village. Soon after, a herd of buffalo came to feed not far from their camp and the hunters could get enough food to feed their people. Since then the stone has been regarded as a powerful amulet to provide all the needs for life and to bring good luck.

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What gemstone represents China?

There is no stronger link between one country and a gemstone than the one joining China with Jade. It has been part of Chinese civilization since it first appeared nearly 10,000 years ago and has been used for ornaments, tools and decoration ever since.

Confucius wrote that jade represented 11 different virtues of man and the earliest dictionaries described jade as 'beautiful stones'. Its sacred importance can be summed up by the story of Liu Sheng, a prince who died around 100 BC and was buried in a suit made up of 2,500 pieces of jade.

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What gemstone represents Colombia?

Exploited since the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in the 16th century, Colombian emeralds have an unmatched history and mystique which is replicated in the enigmatic depths of this deep green beautifully flawed gemstone.

Before the Spanish arrived, the local Chibcha and Muzo tribes mined and traded emeralds throughout the northern half of South America and maybe even up to Central America and Mexico.

Emeralds were used by the native peoples for trade, tribute and for religious ceremonies and rituals.

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What gemstone represents Congo?

The background of Congo is filled with exploitation, corruption and war. However it also has an illustrious history as The Kingdom of Kongo and an untold wealth of natural resources.

Although rich in iron, gold and oil, the Congo is yet to uncover profitable gemstone deposits however it is home to the intriguing and recently discovered Andesine Labradorite, a usually orange to red gemstone.

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What gemstone represents the Czech Republic?

The Czech Republic's association with garnets goes back centuries and they have been known as Bohemian Garnets or Prague Garnets and there is even a famous Bohemian Garnet Museum. These garnets were the Pyrope variety and were usually attractive deep red stones mined in the hills of Bohemia.

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What gemstone represents the Dominican Republic?

Larimar can represent the entire Caribbean as it is the only gemstone found on any of the islands there and this sea blue beauty is the perfect color to do so.

This gemstone was first reported just over a century ago by a Father Miguel Domingo who came across them strewn across the white sandy beaches of the Dominican Republic while taking his early morning walk. This led to the belief that they washed up from the depths of the oceans.

Not much notice was taken of the priest or the gemstones for another 50 years until a local jewelry craftsman, Miguel Mendez, was given one to work with. He recognized the gemstone's natural beauty and potential.

He found the true source of the lovely blue larimar deep in the jungle clad mountains and created the modern day industry of mining, cutting and polishing that thrives to this day.

The gemstone was named by Miguel - 'Lari' from his daughter's name Larissa and 'mar' meaning sea in Spanish.

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What gemstone represents Egypt?

Ancient Egypt's most famous ruler, Cleopatra had a renowned love for emeralds and Egypt was once the only known source of this green gemstone in the world.

However, some people believe that the gems were in fact Peridots which were mined on the island of Zabargad off the coast of Egypt in the Red Sea. These gemstones were so prized that the island's location was kept secret and was only rediscovered in the early 1900s.

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What gemstone represents Eswatini (formerly Swaziland)?

This small nation, surrounded by South Africa, is home to the world's oldest known mining site so far. Archeological digs in the Ngwenya Mountains in the 1960s uncovered a hematite mine dating from 43,000 years ago along with a variety of tools!

If that is not a good reason to choose hematite as the national gemstone, nothing is.

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What gemstone represents Ethiopia?

Black Opal artifacts were discovered in a cave in Kenya and are one of the oldest indications of humankind wearing gemstones as they date back to 4000 BC.

The ancient source of Black Opals was Ethiopia where, nearly 6000 years later, they have been rediscovered, mined and sold around the world once again.

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What gemstone represents Finland?

Spectrolite is a particularly high quality form of Labradorite which displays a remarkable iridescence or play of color. It was first discovered by soldiers while digging fortifications near the Russian border during the Second World War.

It was given the name Spectrolite because, unlike normal Labradorite, it displayed colors from the full spectrum not just blue, grey and green.

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What gemstone represents France?

Like many countries famous for their skills at jewelry making, France is unfortunately lacking in natural gemstone resources itself. How about a gemstone named after the country instead? Rose de France is a delicate lilac colored amethyst which must adhere to strict color, tone and clarity standards.

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What gemstone represents Germany?

600 years ago, the German city of Idar-Oberstein was the centre of gemstone cutting thanks to Agate being found in the nearby mountain range and technological advances in faceting using the power of water driven wheels in the workshops.

The Agate supplies ran out and electricity replaced the water wheels but this historic city and its craftsmen rose to the challenge, bringing Agate in from Brazil and maintaining the highest standards of gem cutting.

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What gemstone represents Greece?

As one of the birthplaces of civilization and democracy, Greece has a long and illustrious history. The cultural influences of this Mediterranean country include philosophy, mathematics and medicine as well as an appreciation of the finer things such as gemstone jewelry.

Many gems were loved and admired in Ancient Greece but one stands out as much today as it did more than 2000 years ago, Amethyst. Its spiritual and visual power led amethyst to become part of Greek mythology with the story of its creation featuring the god, Dionysus and goddess, Artemis.

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What gemstone represents Honduras?

Opal in Matrix is a special form of opal which is made up of black basalt stone speckled with colorful opal. This makes the gemstone much more durable than most forms of opal.

This stunning form of opal can be bought along the beaches of Honduras usually made into pendants by local craftsmen or from us at Gem Select if you do not fancy the trip to this amazing country.

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What gemstone represents Hungary?

Hungary was once a well-known source of opals but since the end of the 18th century mining has all but ceased. Nowadays, the term Hungarian opal can mean any white opal from anywhere in Europe.

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What gemstone represents India?

India has been a source of nearly all the major gemstones for millennia including rubies, diamonds and sapphires and has been the home of some of the most famous gemstones such as the Star of India, the Taj Mahal Emerald, the Kohinoor and the Hope Diamond.

To choose one stone to represent India is almost impossible but I have turned to the sacred Navaratna or 'nine jewels' for inspiration and picked out Ruby - symbolizing the sun - as the sub-continent's finest gem. Ruby is always placed in the center of any setting or arrangement of the nine Navaratna gemstones.

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What gemstone represents Indonesia?

All sorts of gemstone types have been found in the Indonesian Archipelago comprising of more than 12,000 islands including the ancient kingdoms of Java and Bali which were renowned for their beautiful and intricate jewelry.

Jewelry items made from shells and coral stretch back almost 10,000 years and recent discoveries of a Jasper bracelet in West Java are thought to have been made in around 3500BC. To commemorate this long history, I nominate the uniquely patterned and strikingly colored Indonesian Jasper as this nation's gemstone.

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What gemstone represents Iran?

Turquoise has been used by humans for at least 6000 years and Ancient Egyptians would often place turquoise jewelry on Mummies before burial. The mines in Neyshabur, Persia (modern day Iran) are thought to be the oldest source of turquoise gemstones. To this day, Turquoise is the national stone of Iran.

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What gemstone represents Italy?

Italy is not really known for its gemstone resources - although there is the lovely idocrase that was originally found on the slopes of Mt Vesuvius - so I have gone back to Ancient Rome for an Italian gemstone.

Pearls, opals and amethyst were much treasured but probably the most popular gemstone was Carnelian. It was not just made into rings and decorative cameos and imbroglios but also seals for important documents.

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What gemstone represents Japan?

The national gemstone of Japan is Jadeite. This stone was found in the Itoigawa region of central Japan and carved into taishu pendants more than 5000 years ago during the Jomon era.

Jadite mining and carving went on for 1000s of years and it was traded up and down the country and over to the Korean peninsula but then disappeared in the 6th century AD and was not revived until the middle of the 20th century.

Strict environmental protection means very little is mined these days so any carvings made with native Japanese jadeite is very precious indeed.

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What gemstone represents Kenya?

Tsavorite Garnet was discovered on the Kenya/Tanzania border a little over 50 years ago and named after the Tsavo National Park of Kenya. The story of its discovery reveals the romantic, tragic, exciting and often dangerous world of gemstone mining.

Famous Scottish gemologist, Campbell Bridges, was exploring the bush in Zimbabwe when he disturbed a large buffalo. To avoid the charging animal he dived into a gully. While brushing himself down and recovering his breath he noticed the green rocks glinting in the sunlight around him.

Tracing the geology patterns up through Africa to Tanzania and Kenya, he was able to find a reliable source of what became known as Tsavorite and it emerged sensationally onto the world's gem market in the early 1970s.

Tragically, Campbell Bridges was killed in 2009 in a horrific ambush during a dispute over mining rights.

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What gemstone represents Korea?

The national gemstone of Korea is Amethyst. High quality amethyst can be found on the Korean Peninsula but in very small quantities. The famous book on medicine, 'Dongui Bogam', by physician Heo Jun, was written in the 1500s and mentions taking powdered amethyst to cure all ills. (Do NOT try that at home!)

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What gemstone represents Madagascar?

Madagascar is home to many varieties of gemstones all of exceptional quality which could easily be listed as its top stone but I have gone with Grandidierite, a gorgeous turquoise green gem which is really only found in Madagascar and is one of the most valuable gemstones in the world.

Sri Lanka and Madagascar are the only two countries to produce any Grandidierite worthy of being gemstones and both countries are famous for their wide variety of gemstones. Sapphires, rubies, garnets, tourmalines are just some of the precious gemstones found on these two islands.

It is about 3000 miles from Madagascar to Sri Lanka across the Indian Ocean but did you know that in the past these two islands were part of the same continent? Scientists now believe that the two sites where Grandidierite gemstones have recently been found were just 60km apart hundreds of millions of years ago.

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What gemstone represents Mali?

There is only one choice here really since the country is in the name! Rich golden brown and orange Mali Garnets are especially beautiful.

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What gemstone represents Mexico?

Fire Opal is the ideal gemstone to represent the scorching heart of this vibrant country. They have been loved by all cultures that have called Mexico home from when the country was known as Anahuac, Aztlán, Mexico -Tenochtitlan or New Spain to the modern day.

Aztecs called the gemstone 'vitzitziltecpal' or the hummingbird stone because of the play-of-color iridescence while Mayans named them 'quetzalitzlipyollitli' after the equally colorful quetzal bird.

Most Fire Opals do not show this play-of-color just the vivid orange or yellow coloring and, unusually for an opal, they are often clear and faceted.

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What gemstone represents Mozambique?

Mozambique is towards the southern end of the Mozambique Belt, a band of the earth's crust that runs through Africa and was the result of plates moving together, creating both mountain ranges and the conditions that formed the many gemstones that are found on this continent today.

One of these gemstones is Garnet, a varied family of gemstones which can be found in virtually every color and in prices to suit all budgets from affordable yet beautiful red pyrope garnets to the expensive and stunning tsavorite garnets.

Mozambique has more than its fair share of this lovely gemstone but perhaps the burnt orange spessartite garnets are the best.

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What gemstone represents Myanmar?

You cannot think of gemstones from Myanmar without Rubies immediately popping into your mind. For centuries, rubies from the legendary Mogok region, especially those displaying the so-called pigeon blood red color, have been amongst the most sought after and valuable gemstones in the world.

The emperors, maharajas and shahs of the Indian sub continent went into many a battle over the possession of a Burmese ruby and later European Empires would invade to gain access to these wonderful gemstones.

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What gemstone represents Namibia?

I should choose diamonds as the gemstone for Namibia. In times past, they could literally be picked up off the ground along the Skeleton Coast but the boom and bust history of the area has lead me to pick Demantoid garnets instead.

Once only found in Russia, this deep green gemstone with the diamond like sparkle was discovered in the Erongo Mountains of Namibia and launched a new era of popularity for this gorgeous gem without the tragic background.

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What gemstone represents Nepal?

Nestled in the Himalayas and a neighbor of gemstone heavyweights, India, Myanmar and Pakistan, Nepal is more well-known for its spectacular scenery than its gems. However it is home to the delightful Kyanite, a blue gemstone with colors to rival sapphires.

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What gemstone represents New Zealand?

If you have ever been lucky enough to visit the great country of New Zealand, I am sure you will remember seeing the lovely greenstone pendants carved into a number of traditional Maori motifs. This greenstone is called 'pounamu' in the native language and is usually a form of nephrite jade.

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What gemstone represents Nigeria?

Unlike the gem rich eastern side of the African continent West Africa tends to be rich in the more industrial natural resources such as petroleum, bauxite and iron.

Nigeria is proving to be an exception with its Aquamarine gemstones which are found in a deep and saturated blue color not commonly found elsewhere.

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What gemstone represents the Pacific Islands?

The Islands of the South Pacific are patches of tropical paradise in a huge expanse of sea. Tahiti, Samoa and the Cook Islands, such exotic names and all home to the fabled black and silver pearls.

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What gemstone represents Peru?

Pink Opal is an unusual type of opal in that it does not have the traditional play-of-color but is instead a uniform delicate pink color. This gemstone, the national stone of Peru, was considered a gift from Mother Earth or Pachamama by the Incas.

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What gemstone represents the Philippines?

This country of more than 7000 islands is not really known for its gemstone resources but it does have one claim to fame in the world of precious jewels, the largest pearl ever found - a natural clam pearl weighing 34 kg or about 70 lbs! For that reason alone I nominate pearls as the gemstone of the Philippines.

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What gemstone represents Poland?

The whole Baltic region is famous for its amber gemstones. The ancient city of Krakow in Poland has the nickname of 'Amber City' because of its trade in this fossilized tree resin. Amber is not really a gemstone as such as it has an organic origin.

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What gemstone represents Russia?

Normally I would say there is only one choice for Russia's iconic gemstone, Alexandrite, but this color-change marvel has become so rare - especially genuine high quality Russian versions - that getting hold of a gemstone is an expensive and difficult task.

Malachite could be an alternative. If you are ever lucky enough to visit the magnificent city of St Petersburg on the Baltic coast, please take the time to visit The Hermitage Museum. The former Winter Palace of the Russian Czars features the Malachite Room full of columns, fireplaces and incredible urns made of this banded green gemstone. However sources in Russia have dwindled and most deposits come from Africa or America these days.

Charoite, a purple stone with attractive swirls and patterns, is found ONLY in Russia and named after the Chara River that flows through the vast and desolate Sakha Republic.

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What gemstone represents Saudi Arabia?

There is not a great tradition of mining gemstones in Saudi Arabia although a type of quartz called Desert Diamonds has gained some popularity. We feel as a stronghold of Islam, Saudi Arabia would be best celebrated with a gemstone that is generally regarded as the most important gemstone in Islam, Carnelian or Aqeeq in Arabic.

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What gemstone represents Scandinavia - Denmark, Norway, Sweden?

Carnelian is the national gemstone of both Norway and Sweden and amber can be found on some beaches in the north of Denmark but I have gone back to the days of the Vikings for inspiration for a Scandinavian gemstone.

According to ancient legends, the Viking navigators used thin slices of Iolite - called the Viking Compass Stone - to locate the sun on cloudy days and this enabled them traverse the northern seas on their voyages of discovery and plunder.

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What gemstone represents South Africa?

Diamonds, along with gold, are synonymous with South Africa. A little over 150 years ago a Boer farmer's son, Erasmus Jacobs was searching for some pretty stones along the banks of the Orange River which he and other children used to play games with.

One was particularly interesting and when it was noticed that it could scratch glass, it was sent to a geologist in nearby Grahamstown for further examination.

The result? It was a 21 carat diamond. The Cape Colony Governor bought it for the then princely sum of 500 pounds which led to local farmers to search for more of these bright stones.

Within 20 years many more diamonds had been found and South Africa's diamond industry was well under way.

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What gemstone represents Spain?

Spain does not have an official gemstone and only a limited history of mining. Our nomination for a Spanish gemstone is Andalusite, a beautiful earthy orange to red colored stone which was erroneously named after the mountainous Andalusia region of southern Spain. It was in fact first found in El Cardoso, a few hours north of Madrid!

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What gemstone represents Sri Lanka?

The almost legendary history of the island nation tucked below India stretches back thousands of years. Historians such as Ptolemy and Marco Polo wrote of its wealth of gemstones and its previous names include 'Rathnadeepa', meaning, the island of gems.

We have to nominate Sapphire as the gemstone for Sri Lanka, some of the more illustrious sapphires which hail from this island include the engagement ring of Princess Diana and Princess Kate, Empress Maria's 260 carat brooch and the Giant of the Orient, a flawless 600 carat blue sensation.

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What gemstone represents Taiwan?

This island is not well known for its gemstones but the Coral found in its crystal-clear waters create lovely jewels. The warm tropical climate and numerous islands create a perfect environment for the spectacular coral reefs and much work is being done to protect these reefs.

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What gemstone represents Tanzania?

This stunning purple-blue gemstone was originally known as zoisite but it had such a striking appearance that it deserved a more memorable name and so Tanzanite was born, reflecting the country of its birth.

The most commonly believed story about Tanzanite's discovery is that Maasai herdsmen were tending their cattle in the hills of Tanzania not long after a fire had burnt the grasslands in 1967. Brown stones and rocks littered the landscape as per normal but this day the herdsmen notice a blue glow to some of the rocks.

They took the rocks to a local amateur gemologist, Manuel de Sousa, who thought he had a trove of sapphires in his hands. After identification procedures were done, it was discovered that the stones were in fact rare zoisite crystals.

Tiffany's the famous jewelry store, recognized the beauty and potential of these gemstones, renamed them Tanzanite after the country in which they were found and began to market them to the world.

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What gemstone represents Thailand?

Our offices are centered in this tropical paradise famed for its white beaches, opulent temples and delicious food. Here in the city of Chanthaburi on Thailand's eastern seaboard gemstones were once plucked from the ground by farmers as they dug the soil to plant crops. Those days have long gone but the trade of gemstones from all over the world continues.

In former times, the famed golden 'Whiskey' Sapphires found in the nearby hills were much desired and although the modern version gets its color from modern treatments it is still a stunning gemstone.

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What gemstone represents Turkey?

Color-Change Diaspore is a remarkable gemstone with pink, orange and red colors popping up as the lighting conditions change. It was originally found in Russia a couple of hundred years ago but the samples found in Turkey have particularly spectacular color changing displays.

Its scientific name is diaspore but there are a couple of trade names that are used which can be a little bit confusing - Zultanite and Csarite.

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What gemstone represents the UAE?

Just recently on the island of Marawah in the Persian Gulf, just off the coast of The United Arab Emirates, amongst the ceramic pottery and arrowheads, a pearl was found during excavation work. It has been dated back 8,000 years and comes not long after another pearl was found near Dubai which was dated to 7500 years ago. This seems to show that these precious gemstones have been used and traded in this region since the dawn of civilized man.

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What gemstone represents the Ukraine?

The best gemstone to represent Ukraine is jaspilite, a banded brownish red gemstone that resembles a dark tiger's eye. Since this gemstone is a little hard to come by I would suggest Jasper, a similar banded microcrystalline quartz.

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What gemstone represents the United Kingdom?

Apart from a few quartzes and a little fluorite known as Blue John Stone, the UK is not particularly rich in native gemstones. In contrast, it is home to many famous jewels acquired from around the world including the Crown Jewels of the royal family.

Since many of these gemstones have been gained in what may be now thought of as dubious methods, I have gone way back to the 11th century for my choice for the UK's representative.

St Edward's Sapphire was worn by Edward the Confessor as a ring during his coronation in 1042 and nearly a thousand years later it sits atop the crown used by Queen Elizabeth II for official ceremonies.

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What gemstone represents the United States?

America is home to many gemstones types but Tourmaline is the official gemstone of the USA. This is because it was the first gemstone to be commercially excavated by miners other than Native Americans or their prehistoric predecessors.

The mines of Maine and California provided enormous quantities of Tourmaline for the Chinese market throughout the 19th century.

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What gemstone represents the US Native American?

Pre-Columbian Indigenous people of America mined all sorts of gemstones for a variety of uses, ornaments, weapons, utensils, mirrors, engraving tools, abrasives, pigments, even as windows and as currency.

Of course, they were also used in a spiritual way as objects of worship, for divination and medicinal use and offerings to the gods.

Of all the gemstones used by Native Americans (estimated to be 84 different types) Turquoise is probably the most familiar. Fashioned into wonderful jewelry, it has become a southwest US icon.

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What gemstone represents Vietnam?

Vietnam is home to many types of gemstone but the mining industry is not very sophisticated and still relies on small groups of independent miners, either blasting the metamorphic mountains then picking through the debris for rocks containing gemstones or dredging the alluvial plains below the high ranges.

Choosing one of the various stones found in this hilly tropical country is difficult - rubies and sapphires are the most valuable and prestigious but will never compete with those from Myanmar and Sri Lanka so I will go for Spinel. Red spinel to represent the flag of Vietnam and the cobalt blue spinels found near Luc Yen just north of Hanoi for their beauty and rarity.

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What gemstone represents Zambia?

If one country can rival the quality of Colombia's Emeralds, it is Zambia. Colombian emeralds may have more historical prestige but we feel their brighter colors, better clarity and lower prices make them well worth a look.

Over 500 million years in the making, Zambian emeralds often have a slightly different hue with a bluer undertone than their Colombian or Brazilian counterparts and now make up more than 20% of the world market.

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Quick Guide to Country Gemstones

Country Gemstone
Afghanistan Lapis Lazuli
Argentina Rhodochrosite
Australia Opal
Bolivia Ametrine
Brazil Imperial Topaz
Cambodia Zircon
Canada Ammolite
China Jade
Colombia Emerald
Congo Andesine Labradorite
Czech Republic Pyrope Garnet
Dom Republic Larimar
Egypt Peridot
Eswatini Hematite
Ethiopia Black Opal
Finland Spectrolite
France Rose de France Amethyst
Germany Agate
Greece Amethyst
Honduras Opal in Matrix
Hungary Opal
India Ruby
Indonesia Jasper
Iran Turquoise
Italy Carnelian
Japan Jadeite
Kenya Tsavorite
Korea Amethyst
Madagascar Grandidierite
Mali Mali Garnet
Mexico Fire Opal
Mozambique Garnet
Myanmar Ruby
Namibia Demantoid
Nepal Kyanite
New Zealand Jade
Nigeria Aquamarine
Pacific Islands Pearl
Peru Pink Opal
Philippines Pearl
Poland Amber
Russia Charoite
Saudi Arabia Carnelian
Scandinavia Iolite
South Africa Diamond
Spain Andalusite
Sri Lanka Sapphire
Taiwan Coral
Tanzania Tanzanite
Thailand Golden Yellow Sapphire
The UAE Pearl
Turkey Color-Change Diaspore
Ukraine Jasper
United Kingdom Sapphire
United States Tourmaline
US Native American Turquoise
Vietnam Spinel
Zambia Emerald
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