Onyx Gemstone Information
About Onyx - History and Introduction
Onyx is black and white banded agate (cryptocrystalline or chalcedony quartz). It should not to be confused with onyx marble, which is limestone. The banding of onyx is parallel and consistent. Some varieties of onyx differ in colour, such as sard onyx, which has a brown base and white upper layer, cornelian onyx, which has a red base and white upper layer, and niccolo onyx, which has a very thin upper layer, allowing the black base colour to show through as grey or blue. Onyx takes its name from the Greek word "onux", which means fingernail; this could be due to a Greek legend, in which Eros mischievously cut the fingernails of Aphrodite with an arrowhead whilst she slept, and the gods turned the clippings into stone. Onyx was cut and carved as a gemstone by the Ancient Greeks and Romans in cameos. Intaglio etchings (negative relief engravings) were also made from onyx. These carvings showcase the banding of onyx.
Identifying Onyx Back to Top
Onyx can be identified by its black base and white upper layer with parallel banding. However, in the case of sard onyx the base is brown and cornelian onyx has a red base. It is difficult to identify when the material is a single colour and can only be clearly distinguished from agate when seen in the rough, exhibiting visibly parallel and consistent banding.
Onyx; Origin and Gemstone Sources Back to Top
Onyx deposits are found in countries all over the world, including Argentina, Australia, Brazil, India, Botswana, Madagascar, Mexico, Myanmar (Burma), Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Uruguay and the USA.
Buying Onyx and Determining Onyx Gemstone Value Back to Top
Onyx Gemmological Properties: Back to Top
Please refer to our Gemstone Glossary for details of gemmology-related terms.
Onyx: Related or Similar Gemstones Back to Top
Since onyx is silicon dioxide, it is related to all of the other types of quartz, especially cryptocrystalline quartz types such as agate, chrysoprase, jasper, carnelian and bloodstone. Onyx can appear similar to schorl tourmaline, black jade, black diamond and jet.
Onyx Gemstone Mythology, Metaphysical and Alternative Crystal Healing Powers Back to Top
Black onyx is thought to have protective properties and to bring inner strength, self-confidence and mental discipline to its wearer. Additionally, onyx is said to help to release negative emotions and alleviate fear and anxiety. Physically, onyx is believed to help in wound healing, childbirth, eye and ear problems and to benefit the skin, hair, teeth and nails. Onyx is the birthstone for the zodiacal sign of Leo and the seventh wedding anniversary gemstone. Like many gemstones, some cultures believe onyx to be unlucky, but others consider it to be virtuous and to protect against black magic.
Onyx Gemstone and Jewellery Design Ideas Back to Top
Onyx is a versatile material that can be fashioned into a wide variety of jewellery that displays its unique banding or a single colour. Black onyx is commonly used for both men's and women's jewellery. Onyx contrasts well with gold settings that give it a bold appearance. In Victorian times, onyx was popular as mourning jewellery and black onyx provided a dramatic contrast in silver set Art Deco jewellery. Onyx is beautiful by itself and stunning alongside diamonds and other coloured gemstones, such as in the Van Cleef & Arpels "Manhattan Flowers"; earrings made from moonstone, onyx and diamond that were worn by Adele at the 2012 Brit Awards.
Note: Buy coloured gemstones by size and not by carat weight. Coloured stones vary in size-to-weight ratio. Some stones are larger and others are smaller than diamonds by weight in comparison.
Famous Onyx Gemstones Back to Top
The largest surviving ancient cameo is The Great Cameo of France, dating back to approximately 23 AD. The cameo is carved from five-layer sard onyx and features twenty-four figures on three levels. It is currently displayed in the Bibliotheque Nationale, in France.
The Gemma Augustea (Gem of Augustus) is another remarkable cameo, carved from Arabian onyx. It is thought that Dioscurides (A Roman physician, pharmacologist and botanist) or one of his associates created the cameo in the 1st century AD. The Gemma Augusta features twelve figures and is an exhibit of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.
The Fabergé Trans-Siberian Railway Egg, created in 1900 for Tsar Nicholas II of Russia is made of onyx, silver, gold and quartz. It is currently on display in the Kremlin Armoury Museum in Moscow, Russia.
Onyx Gemstone Jewellery Care and Cleaning Back to Top
Onyx is a fairly tough substance but still requires proper care to keep it in good condition. To clean your onyx, simply use soapy water and a soft cloth. Be sure to rinse well to remove soapy residue. As with most gemstones, ultrasonic cleaners and steamers are not recommended. Always remove any jewellery or gemstones before exercising, cleaning or engaging in harsh physical activities such as sports. Onyx can be easily scratched by harder substances, so it should be stored away from other gemstones. It is best to wrap gemstones in soft cloth or place them inside a fabric-lined jewellery box.
- First Published: March-07-2014
- Last Updated: May-24-2017
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