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Sphene Gemstone Information

About Sphene - History and Introduction

Sphene is a very rare brilliant yellowish-green, green, orange or brown gemstone with a high luster, also known as "titanite" due to its titanium content. The name "sphene" comes from the Greek word, "sphen", meaning "wedge", which alludes to the formation of its crystals. Due to its high dispersion, when brilliant-cut, sphene can exhibit a fire similar to that of diamond.

Sphene has been known since 1787 and was named according to its titanium content in 1795 by Martin Klaproth. In 1801, it was given the name "sphene" by French mineralogist, Rene Just Hauy. In 1982, the International Mineralogical Association Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names (CNMMN) decided to use the name "titanite" rather than "sphene". However, both "sphene" and "titanite" continue to be recognized in mineralogy circles, and sphene is the most frequently used gemology term.

Sphene Gemstone
Sphene Gemstone
Click to enlarge image
Identifying Sphene Back to Top

Sphene can be identified by its high luster, a refractive index that is typically over the limit of standard refractometers and intense fire, caused by a high dispersion. Sphene has a similar refractive index to zircon, but can be distinguished from zircon by its Mohs hardness score of 5 to 5.5, whereas zircon has a Mohs hardness of 6.5 to 7.5.

Sphene; Origin and Gemstone Sources Back to Top

Sphene deposits are found in Brazil, Burma (Myanmar), India, Kenya, Madagascar, Mexico, Austria, Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and the USA.

Buying Sphene and Determining Sphene Gemstone Value Back to Top

Sphene Color

Sphene can occur yellow, brown, green or reddish and various shades in between, such as cognac color. Intense green sphene is also known as "chrome sphene", due to the color agent being chromium. "Chrome sphene" and yellowish-green sphene are the most desirable colors. Reddish sphene gets its color from manganese impurities and is sometimes referred to as "greenovite".

Sphene Clarity and Luster

Sphene is rarely free from inclusions and eye clean stones are rare. Gemstones in sizes over 5 carats are also rare and are highly valued. Sphene has an adamantine luster, which combined with its high dispersion, makes it an attractive gemstone.

Sphene Cut and Shape

Sphene is cut in a variety of faceted shapes that show off its high dispersion and adamantine luster. Sphene can be seen in shapes such as octagons, trillions, squares, rounds and fancier shapes, such as ovals, pears and cushions. Translucent to opaque stones are often cut en cabochon. Sphene can present a challenge to lapidarists, due to its brittle tenacity and softness, but is worth the effort, since when faceted and polished it yields stunning results.

Sphene Treatment

Sphene is not generally treated or enhanced, though the color can be changed to red or orange by heating. However, most sphene gemstones are untreated and naturally orange and reddish sphene is available.

Sphene Gemological Properties: Back to Top
Chemical Formula: CaTiSiO5 Calcium titanium silicate
Crystal Structure: Monoclinic; platy
Color: Yellow, brown, green, reddish
Hardness: 5 to 5.5 on the Mohs scale
Refractive Index: 1.843 to 2.110
Density: 3.52 to 3.54
Cleavage: Good
Transparency: Transparent to opaque
Double Refraction or Birefringence: 0.100 to 0.192
Luster: Adamantine
Fluorescence: None

Please refer to our Gemstone Glossary for details of gemology-related terms.

Sphene: Related or Similar Gemstones Back to Top
Scapolite Gemstone

Sphene is known to occur with scapolite, apatite and quartz. However, sphene can be distinguished by its higher refractive index. Sphene also occurs with zircon, which has a similar high refractive index. Sphene has a similar chemical structure to tilasite, malayaite and fersmantite. Other gemstones that can be confused for sphene are chrysoberyl, dravite, golden beryl, scheelite, topaz, zircon and idocrase.

Sphene Gemstone Mythology, Metaphysical and Alternative Crystal Healing Powers Back to Top

Sphene is said to be a calming and soothing stone that protects its wearer from negative energy. Additionally, sphene is thought to aid clear thinking and creativity. In traditional Hindu belief systems, sphene is associated with the Ajna chakra; also known as the third eye, or brow chakra, which is related to the mind and previous lives. Physically, sphene is thought to help alleviate muscle strain, fever and tissue inflammation.

Disclaimer: Metaphysical and Alternative Crystal Healing Powers and Properties are not to be taken as confirmed advice. Traditional, Ceremonial and Mythological Gemstone Lore is collected from various resources and does not represent the sole opinion of SETT Co., Ltd. This information is not to replace the advice of your doctor. Should you have any medical conditions, please see a licensed medical practitioner. GemSelect does not guarantee any claims or statements of healing or astrological birthstone powers and cannot be held liable under any circumstances.
Sphene Gemstone and Jewelry Design Ideas Back to Top

Sphene's high refractive index, dispersion and luster make it a stunning gemstone. However, it is a rare gemstone that is not often seen in jewelry. Moreover, due to sphene's lack of hardness, it is not recommended to be worn daily in rings or jewelry that is likely to be exposed to general wear and tear. Even so, due to its remarkable brilliance, well-cut sphene gemstones do make for stunning sphene rings, as long as its occasional-wearing and care is taken to protect the stone. Sphene is best used for jewelry not prone to hard knocks and dings, such as sphen earrings or a sphene pendants, which would not be at risk of damage nearly as much as rings or bracelets. If sphene is fashioned into a ring or bracelet, protected settings such as bezel settings are best. Sphene gemstones make beautiful earrings, pendants and brooches.

Note: Buy colored gemstones by size and not by carat weight. Colored stones vary in size-to-weight ratio. Some stones are larger and others are smaller than diamonds by weight in comparison.

Famous Sphene Gemstones Back to Top

American TV personality, Kristin dos Santos wore a Madagascan sphene ring by Kat Florence to the 2014 Golden Globes.

In 2013, the Pimco Foundation Gallery in Southern California was host to a "Jewels of the Connoisseur" exhibition that featured rare gemstones, including a green sphene butterfly by master lapidarist, Buzz Gray and jewelry designer, Bernadine Johnston. Also faceted by Buzz Gray is an incredible 43.52 carat intense green sphene gemstone, displayed at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History in the USA.

Sphene Gemstone Jewelry Care and Cleaning Back to Top

How to clean your gemstonesSphene lacks hardness, so it should be cared for in order to prevent damage. Since household dust contains quartz, which has a Mohs scale hardness of 7, simply wiping dust from a sphene gemstone could cause scratches. The best way to clean sphene gemstones is by using soapy water and a soft cloth. Be sure to rinse well to remove soapy residue. Do not expose sphene to household chemicals, acid or excessive heat. As with most gemstones, ultrasonic cleaners and steamers are not recommended. Always remove any jewelry or gemstones before exercising, cleaning or engaging in harsh physical activities such as sports. Sphene can be easily scratched by harder substances, so it should be stored away from other gemstones. It is best to wrap gemstones in soft cloth or place them inside a fabric-lined jewelry box.

  • First Published: July-03-2007
  • Last Updated: September-30-2016
  • © 2005-2016 all rights reserved.
    Reproduction (text or graphics) without the express written consent of (SETT Company Ltd.) is strictly prohibited.
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Size and Weight

Gems are always measured in Millimeter (mm)

Dimensions are given as;
length x width x depth,
except for round stones which are;
diameter x depth

Select gems by size, not by weight!
Gem varieties vary in density, so carat weight is not a good indication of size

Note: 1ct = 0.2g

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